*2021 NECO GEOGRAPHY QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 🔥*
*ANSWER QUESTION ONE AND ANY OTHER THREE QUESTIONS*
*NUMBER 1 IS COMPULSORY*
*Then answer any 3 other questions*
*Making 4 all together*
Great circle is any line that divides the earth into equal halves or hemisphere. The centre of the Great circle is also the centre of the earth. The shortest distance between any two points on the earth ‘s surface lies along the circumference of the great circle which passes these points . The Great circle route is often used by aircraft on a long distance journey eg Polar air route between London and Los Angeles over Greenland.
International date line:
International date line is where the date changes by exactly one day(24 hours) when it is crossed. There is a difference of one whole day (24hours) on both sides of longitude 180° . So, the 180° meridian represents theoretically ,a date line. The international date line is not straight for it avoids cutting across islands to prevent confusion in days and dates in the tiny islands.
Time zone is the division of the world into twenty four (24)time zone, each of which differ from the next zone by 15° in longitude or 1hour in time. The local time of the central meridian for each zone is applied to that zone which is called a time zone. All places located on the same time zone have the same time.
prime meridian is the line of 0° longitude, the starting point for measuring distance both east and west around the Earth. The prime meridian is arbitrary, meaning it could be chosen to be anywhere. The prime meridian separates the eastern hemisphere from the western hemisphere.
*(Pick any Four)*
(i)Parallels are lines of latitudes WHILE Meridians are lines of longitude
(ii)Parallels are drawn from west to east WHILE Meridians are drawn from north to south
(iii)Parallels never meet WHILE Meridians meet at the poles.
(iv)Parallels have different lengths(circumstances) WHILE Meridians have equal length
(v)Parallels are used to calculate distance WHILE Meridian are used to calculate time
(vi)Parallels are marked 0°- 90° North and South of the equator WHILE Meridians are marked 0°- 180° East and West of the Greenwich
*(i) Mechanical formed sedimentary rocks*
_Example’s;_ Sandstone, conglomerate
*(ii) Organically formed sedimentary rocks*
_Example’s;_ Limestone, chalks
*(iii) Chemical formed sedimentary rocks*
_Example’s;_ Potash, sodium chloride (common salt).
*Characteristic Of Sedimentary Rocks*
*(i)* They are non-crystalline
*(ii)* They are usually soft
*(iii)* They are permeable
*(iv)* They are resistant to erosion
*(v)* sedimentary rocks are stratified. They show distinct layer or strata
Choose Any Four for 3b 👆👆
– (Tropical Rainy Climate)
In this zone, temperature is about 21°C and above.
– It has heavy rainfall throughout the year. The climate is moist and hot
– In the A-Climate, there are three sub-groups, namely Af, Am and Aw.
– (The Tropical Grassland) (Savanna)
– This climatic group can be located 5° – 25° North and between 5° – 25° South of the Equator.
The main areas located within this zone are:
(1) West Africa and parts of Central and Eastern Africa.
(2) Central America and parts of North-West of South America.
– Rainfall only occurs in summer.
– Rainfall is seasonal and convectional in nature.
– (Warm Temperate Rainy Climate).
– There are types of sub groups of the warm temperate rainy climate
(1) The Cf Climate: This type of climate is often referred to as the Mild Humid Climate. In this zone, there is no dry season with any month having less than 30mm of rainfall.
(2) The Cw Climate: Heavy Rainfall in Summer, Dryness in winter.
(3) The Cs Climate: Has heavy rainfall in winter, it has dryness in summer.
– (Polar/Ice Climate)
– In the E – Climate, two distinct sub-groups can be identified namely:
(1) The ET Climate: This type of climate belt is often referred to as TUNDRA Climate. This zone has an average temperature of warmest months less than 10°C but greater than 0°C.
(2) The EF Climate: This zone is also referred to as the zone of continuous frost climate. It has average temperature of all months less than 0°C. It also has ice caps.
A Karst Topography also know as Limestone Region has no surface water, since the the sudden disappearance of springs underground to form sub-terranean streams.
(i) Absence of surface Drainage: Due to permeability of the region, most surface water flow a short distance and disappear.
(ii) Solubility: Limestone is insoluble but due to the action of rainwater in the which carbondioxode dissolves to form weak acid, which then makes the limestone to become soluble.
(iii) Presence of Dry Surface Valleys: Due to the easy penetration of water into karst region, all the valleys often remain dry.
Diagram Below Loading….
(i) Clints: Clints are surface features and isolated rectangular blocks which exist between joints or grikes.
(ii) Doline: This is formed when a number of several sink holes join together to form a large depression.
(iii) Grikes: This are surfaces features in limestone regions. They are formed as a result of gradual widening of the joints by solution to form limestone pavement.
Geospatial data is information that has a geographic aspect to it. In other words, the records in this type of information set have coordinates, an address, city, postal code, or zip code included with them.
👉Numeric data is statistical data which includes a geographical component or field that can be joined with vector files so the data can be queried and displayed as a layer on a map in a GIS.
👉Vector data is data that has a spatial component, or X,Y coordinates assigned to it.
👉Raster data is data in a .JPG, .TIF, .GIF or similar format. Items scanned using a flatbed scanner like this map are examples of raster files.
👉multi-temporal data, which attaches a time component to information; and Web files.
👉primary data sources.
👉secondary data sources.
👉Directly collected data source
*CHOOSE YOUR PREFERRED SOLUTION*
All question 2 to 8 solved above 👆👆
*Question 1 , 3, 4, 7, 8 solved below 👇👇👇*
MAP CHECK BACK 7;45AM
COMING BOTH WITH OBJECTIVE.
Mechanically Formed Sedimentary Rocks: These are rocks which are formed as a result of the action of water wind and ice. The following rocks are the results of the action of water which include clays, gravel and aluminum. Those that result from the action of ice are moraine, boulder and gravel.
Organically Formed Sedimentary Rocks: These are rocks which are formed from the remains of plants and animals. Some of the notable rocks formed by the remains of animals are chalk and corals. Those that result from plants include peat and lignite.
Chemically Formed Sedimentary Rocks: These are rocks which results from chemical composition. The major rocks formed include Borax, gypsium.
(i) These rocks are resistance to erosion.
(ii) They occur in strata or layers.
(iii) They contain fossils of plants and animals.
(iv) They are non-crystalline in nature
Temperature and precipitation
(i) It can be adapted for use at different educational levels
(ii) It stresses the link between vegetation and soils
(iii) It makes use of temperature and preciptation figures
(i) It’s more descriptive and generalized with ignoring local and causative factors.
(ii) It neglected air masses
(iii) It is empirical and, therefore, is based on facts and observations
(i) A – Tropical Moist Climates (average temperature above 18⁰C in all months)
(ii) Aw – precipitation in driest month less than 60 mm and less than 100 – (r/25)
(iii) C – Moist Mid-Latitude Climates with Mild Winters
(iv) E – Polar Climates (extremely cold summers and winters)
The ozone layer is a natural layer of gas in the upper atmosphere that protects humans and other living things from harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun.
Help to reduce temperature: Consequently, decreased ozone in the stratosphere results in low
Protection from harmful ultra violet rays and radiation: The ozone layer protects us from harmful UV rays that can have serious effects on biodiversity, animals and people’s health, including skin cancer and eye cataract.
Absorption of pollutants: The stratospheric layer which occupy the lower part of the atmosphere removes the unwanted pollutants from the earth’s surface.
(i) Unregulated Rocket Launches
Geographical data refers to data and information that has explicit or implicit association with a location relative to Earth.
Vector data file: These data are created by digitizing the base data. They store information in x, y coordinates. Vectors models are used to store data, which have discrete boundaries like country borders, land parcels and roads. Vector models are useful for storing data that has discrete boundaries, such as country borders, land parcels, and streets.
Raster Data file: Raster data stores information of features in cell-based manner. Satellite images, photogrammetry and scanned maps are all raster-based data. Raster models are used to store data, which varies continuously as in aerial photography, a satellite image or elevation values
Geographic database: Geographic databases can store more complex elements needed to describe the world and the roads or buildings built upon it. The basic data element is the point that is the combination of the longitude, latitude, and sometimes the altitude.
Multi temporal data; These are data generally used for change detection. It attaches a time component to information
(i)It helps to analyze urban growth and the direction of expansion.
(ii)It plays a vital for conserving natural resources and protecting the environment
(iii)It plays an essential role in planning, organizing, and decision making in the banking industry
_Students should adhere to teachers instructions, base on the graphical part, all maps are fixed as seen_
_Do not open booklet unless you’re told to do so_