Ecological tourism can be defined as responsible travel to natural areas that conserve the environment, sustains the well-being of the local people, and involves interpretation and education.
(i) It aids community development: It helps in community development by providing the alternate source of livelihood to local community which is more sustainable.
(ii) Conserves Resources: Its aim is to conserve resources, especially biological diversity, and maintain sustainable use of resources, which can bring ecological experience to travelers, conserve the ecological environment and gain economic benefit.
(iii) Opportunity for Small-scale Investment: Ecotourism offers new opportunities for small-scale investments and also increases national responsibility in the protection of biological resources. It therefore acts as a means of socio-economic and environmental uplifting especially in developing countries for which the ecotourism acts as a major source of foreign exchange.Visiting the protected areas such as national parks and reserves contribute towards maintenance of the parks or reserves. This is possible by the collection of entrance fees and other charges which go towards paying for improvements and salaries for the staff taking care of the facilities. Sufficient amounts of revenue are therefore re-invested in protecting natural habitats
(i) Ibeno beach, in Ibeno, Akwa Ibom State
(ii) Obudu Mountain Resort, in Obudu, Cross River State
(iii) Oban Hills, in Oban, Cross River State.
(i) Afan National Festival.
(ii) Agila Social and Economic Carnival.
(iii) Annang Festival of Art and Culture.
(iv) Argungu Fishing Festival.
(i) Nok culture of Kaduna state
(ii) Dye Pits of kano state
(iii) Esie stone sculptures
(iv) Mbari Art of Imo state
(i) Social influence: The influence of modernization, Christianity, commerce, civilization, change, development, looting, and antiquarians, among others.
(ii) Developmental projects: The government developmental projects which destroy cultural heritages, conflicts and social change in Nigeria as a whole.
(iii) Social change: The Social change implies an alteration, modification or shift in behavior also cause the challenge in cultural heritage.
(iv) Religious fanaticism: The religious zealots who burn cultural objects in the name of deliverance.
Tour operator is an organization, firm, or company who buys individual travel components, separately from their suppliers and combines them into a package tour, which is sold with their own price tag to the public directly or through middlemen.
(Choose Any three)
(i) Planning a Tour:The most important functions of the tour operators are planning a tour. Tour operators plan a tour and make tour itinerary which contains the identification of the origin, destination and all the stopping point in a traveler’s tours.
(ii) Making Tour Package:
Tour operator buys individual travel components, separately from there suppliers and combines them into a package tour. Tour operators make tour package by assembling various travel components into a final product that is called tour package which is sold to tourist with own price tag.
(iii)Arranging a Tour:
Tour operators make tour package and also arrange a tour according to tourist demands. Tour operators arrange the tour package and various tourists activities to provide the best experience to tourists/traveler.
(iv) Travel information: A tour operator must give up-to-date, accurate and timely information regarding destinations, modes of travel, accommodation, sightseeing, immigration, health and security rules about various permits required to travel in a particular area etc.
(i) Booking: One of the most important duties of a travel agent is booking accommodations, car rentals, flights, cruises, trains, buses and tours. They have access to direct inventory for many accommodations and travel arrangements, giving you options that you may have missed by searching for yourself online.
(ii)Customer Service: Customer service is an important duty of a travel agent. Not only will travel agents book your trip and tell you about where you are going, but they will plan every detail from the time that you leave your home until the time you return.
(iii)Knowledge: Travel agents are required to have a broad knowledge of the world, especially popular travel destinations. When you are planning a leisure vacation, a travel agent can suggest locations that fit your travel wants and needs.
Tourism marketing is the collective name given to the various marketing strategies used by businesses within the tourism industry to promote the business, make it stand out from rivals, attract customers, and generate brand awareness.
(Choose Any three)
(i)Build a compelling and memorable visual brand.
(ii)Build a collaborative local network of suppliers.
(iii) Design powerful customer experiences.
(iv)Drive website traffic.
(v) Power-up your tourism content marketing campaign.
(i) Print media: Print media advertising uses media which are printed in sending out its messages about the product or service being advertised to prospective customers, present consumers and other businesses which may be interested in the product or service offered.
(iii) Publications: Publications cover all means of making marketing messages on tourism potential and attraction available to the general public as well as to those who are specially targeted by the marketing that particular message.
(iii) Magazines: Magazines allow marketers to reach readers in different market segments. This makes it easy for tourism marketers to place adverts in magazines to attract persons with specific interest, for example placing an advert on golfing in magazines patronized my middle-upper income earners.
(iv) Newspapers: Those who wish to advertise in the newspapers are able to select from a broad range of newspapers. Advertisers of tourist events and venues can buy different classes of space from small size text only adverts to larger spaces with pictures and illustration of tourist centers and events, even up to full pages where one’s budget allows.
(i) Act as the apex body to provide leadership and direction for the private sector travel, hospitality and recreation Associations/businesses.
(ii) Co-ordinate, promote and protect the interest of its members in the tourism sector of the nation’s economy and in particular the interests of its members.
(iii) Liaise, interact and work in concert with the government (Federal, States, and Local Government Areas) and its agencies in order to guarantee the timely and effective development of tourism resources in Nigeria.
(iv) Establish operating standards and ethics that will enhance credibility of the profession and encourage its acceptability.
(v) Promote domestic and international tourism activities within the Federal Republic of Nigeria in particular and the rest of the world, in general.
(i) To encourage people living in Nigeria to take their holidays therein and people from abroad to visit Nigeria
(ii) To encourage the provision and improvement of tourism amenities and facilities
in Nigeria including the development of hotels and ancillary facilities.
(iii) To provide advisory and information services
(iv) To promote and undertake research in the field of tourism;
(v) To render technical advice to the states and local governments in the field of tourism
(Choose Any Five)
(i) Nigeria Hotels Association (NHA)
(ii) Federation of Tourism Association of Nigeria (FTAN)
(iii) National Association of Tour Operators( NATOP)
(iv) Hospitality and Tourism Management
(v)Association of Nigeria (HATMAN)
(vi) National Association of Nigeria Travel Agencies (NANTA)
(i) Negative perception of Nigeria abroad.
(ii) Lack of infrastructure at most tourism site.
(iii) Multiple taxation
(v) Poor Management and Administration